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Peer-Reviewed Publications

  1.  Christianson, L., A. Castelló, R. Christianson, A. Bhandari, and M. Helmers. 2010. Technical note: Hydraulic property determination of denitrifying bioreactor fill media. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 26(5): 849‐854.
  2.  Christianson, L., A. Bhandari, and M. Helmers. 2011. Pilot-scale evaluation of denitrification drainage bioreactors: Reactor geometry and performance. Journal of Environmental Engineering 137(4): 213-220.
  3. Christianson, L., J. Hanly, and M. Hedley. 2011. Optimized denitrification bioreactor treatment through simulated drainage containment. Agricultural Water Management 99(1):85-92.
  4. Christianson, L., and J. Tyndall. 2011. Seeking a dialog: A targeted technology for sustainable agricultural systems in the American Corn Belt. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 7(2). Available at:
  5. Christianson, L., A. Bhandari, M. Helmers, K. Kult, T. Sutphin, and R. Wolf. 2012. Performance evaluation of four field-scale agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactors in Iowa. Transactions of the ASABE 55(6): 2163-2174.
  6. Christianson, L., A. Bhandari, and M. Helmers. 2012. A practice-oriented review of woodchip bioreactors for subsurface agricultural drainage. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 28(6): 861-874.
  7. Christianson, L., N. Hoover, A. Bhandari, and M. J. Helmers. 2012. Technical Note: The potential of municipal yard waste to be denitrification bioreactor fill. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 28(6): 853-859.
  8. Christianson, L., R. Christianson, M. Helmers, C. Pederson, and A. Bhandari. 2013. Modeling and calibration of drainage denitrification bioreactor design criteria. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 139(9): 699-709.
  9. Christianson, L. M. Helmers, A. Bhandari, and T. Moorman. 2013. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor. Ecological Engineering 52: 298-307.
  10. Christianson, L., M. Smith, D. Storm, M. White, S. Stoodley. 2013. Evaluating Remote Sensing Methods for Targeting Erosion in Riparian Corridors. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 93: 55-65.
  11. Christianson, L., J. Tyndall, and M. Helmers. 2013. Financial comparison of seven nitrate reduction strategies for Midwestern agricultural drainage. Water Resources and Economics 2-3:30-56.
  12. Christianson, L., T. Knoot, D. Larsen, J. Tyndall, and M. Helmers. 2014. Adoption potential of nitrate mitigation practices: an ecosystem services approach. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 12(4): 407-424.
  13. Christianson, L., and S. Summerfelt. 2014. Fluidization velocity assessment of commercially available sulfur particles for use in autotrophic denitrification biofilters. Aquacultural Engineering 60:1-5.
  14. Christianson, L., and R. Harmel. 2015. The MANAGE Drain Load database: Review and compilation of more than fifty years of North American drainage nutrient studies. Water Management 159:277-289.
  15. Feyereisen, G., and L. Christianson. 2015. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 31(1): 89-96.
  16. Tsukuda, S., L. Christianson, K. Saito, A. Kolb, and S. Summerfelt. 2015. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters. Aquacultural Engineering 64:49-59.
  17.  Christianson, L., and R. Harmel. 2015. 4R water quality impacts: An assessment and synthesis of forty years of drainage nitrogen losses. Journal of Environmental Quality 44(6):1852-1860.
  18.  Christianson, L., C. Lepine, S. Tsukuda, K. Saito, and S. Summerfelt. 2015. Nitrate removal effectiveness of fluidized sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification biofilters for recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquacultural Engineering 68:10-18.
  19. Christianson, L. and L. Schipper. 2016. Moving denitrifying bioreactors beyond proof of concept: Introduction to the special section. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(3): 757-761.
  20. Addy, K., A. Gold, L. Christianson, M. David, L. Schipper, and N. Sacha. 2016. Denitrifying Bioreactors for Nitrate Removal: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(3): 873-881.
  21. Feyereisen, G., T. Moorman, L. Christianson, R. Venterea, J. Coulter, U. Tschirner. 2016. Performance of agricultural residue media in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors at low temperatures. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(3): 779-787.
  22. Sharrer, K., L. Christianson, C. Lepine, and S. Summerfelt. 2016. Modeling and mitigation of denitrification ‘woodchip’ bioreactor phosphorus releases during treatment of aquaculture wastewater. Ecological Engineering 93:135-143.
  23. Lepine, C., L. Christianson, K. Sharrer, and S. Summerfelt. 2016. Optimizing hydraulic retention times in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors treating recirculating aquaculture system wastewater. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(3): 813-821.
  24. Christianson, L., C. Lepine, K. Sharrer, and S. Summerfelt. 2016. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment. Water Research 105:147-156.
  25. Harmel, R., L. Christianson, M. McBroom, D. Smith, and K. Higgs. 2016. Expansion of the MANAGE database with forest and drainage studies. Am. Water Res. Assoc’n. 10.1111/1752-1688.12438.
  26. Christianson, L., R. Harmel, D. Smith, M. Williams, and K. King. 2016. Assessment and synthesis of 50 years of published drainage phosphorus losses. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(5): 1467-1477.
  27. Zhao, X., L. Christianson, D. Harmel, and C. Pittelkow. 2016. Assessment of drainage nitrogen losses on a yield-scaled basis. Field Crops Research 199:156-166.
  28. Rosen, T. and L. Christianson. 2017. Performance of denitrifying bioreactors at reducing agricultural nitrogen pollution in a humid subtropical coastal plain environment. Water 9(2):112.
  29. Christianson, L., J. Faulkner, T. Basden and D. DeVallance. 2017. Scientifically advanced woody media for improved water quality from livestock woodchip heavy-use areas. Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering 11:2 doi:10.1007/s11783-017-0909-7.
  30. Feyereisen, G., L. Christianson, T. Moorman, R. Venterea, and J. Coulter. In press 2017. Plastic biofilm carrier after corn cobs reduces nitrate loading in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors. Journal of Environmental Quality doi: 10.2134/jeq2017.02.0060.
  31. Christianson, L., C. Lepine, P. Sibrell, C. Penn, and S. Summerfelt. In press 2017. Denitrifying woodchip bioreactor and phosphorus filter pairing to minimize pollution swapping. Water Research
  32. Eagle, A., R. Cook, L. Christianson, D. Harmel, F. Miguez, S. Qian, D. Diaz. In press 2017. Meta-analyses on fertilizer management: Results and recommendations for agricultural research. Agronomy Journal. doi: 10.2134/agronj2017.04.0215.


Non-Peer Reviewed Outreach Publications Available Online

  1. Christianson, L. 2016. Nutrient loss reduction: Using science to find the right practices for your field. Illinois Extension and Illinois Water Resources Center (4-pg factsheet). Available at:
  2. Christianson, L., J. Frankenberger, C. Hay, M. Helmers, and G. Sands (Eds.). 2016. Ten ways to reduce nitrogen loads from drained cropland in the Midwest. Urbana, IL: Illinois Extension. (Open peer review). Available at:
  3. Christianson, L., and M. Helmers. 2011. Woodchip bioreactors for nitrate in agricultural drainage. Iowa State University Extension Publication PMR 1008 (double blind expert-reviewed). Available at: